The Boston Naming Test in Greek: Normative data and the effects of age and education on naming

Aims: This study translated and adapted the test for use in Greece. Normative data were collected on the test for healthy Greek speakers of different ages and educational backgrounds.

Methods and Procedures: Participants in four different age ranges and with three levels of educational achievement were tested. They were screened for cognitive decline using a Greek version of the mini mental state examination.

Outcomes and Results: Strong effects of age and education were found on naming. The former replicates previous results. Results on the latter have been less consistent and their occurrence here reflects the greater inequality in educational opportunity that has existed in Greece until comparatively recent times. Significant interactions between age, education, and gender are interpreted as reflecting changing social and gender roles in Greek society. A reordering of items reflecting their difficulty for this Greek sample is presented for clinical use.

Conclusions: This study provides norms for a Greek version of the BNT. These highlight the effects of age and education on naming. Scores for many older and less‐educated participants might be taken to indicate pathology despite their lack of neurological or cognitive problems. This illustrates the need for norms that reflect local circumstances and the need to update norms as social and educational changes occur.

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